Kachkar, Omar

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Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
Küresel rekabete ayak uydurmak ve sürdürülebilir olmak isteyen tüm şirketler ve kurumlar, değişimi doğru bir şekilde yönetmek, teknolojinin gerekli kıldığı zihinsel ve operasyonel dönüşümü kurumlarına hızlı bir şekilde adapte etmek zorundadırlar.

Adı Soyadı

Omar Kachkar

İlgi Alanları

İslami finans, Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Hedefleri, Mülteciler, Vakıf ve Zekât, Şeriat Yönetişimi

Kurumdaki Durumu

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Listeleniyor 1 - 10 / 24
  • Yayın
    Para vakıflarıyla ilgili güncel meseleler: Sukûk vakfına ilişkin bir inceleme
    (İstanbul Üniversitesi, 2021) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Alfares, Marwa; Hersh, Ahmad; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    برزت أهمية الوقف الإسلامي مؤخراً مع تزايد الاهتمام العالمي بالتنمية المستدامة. وقد ظهرت تطبيقات جديدة للوقف، ونتج عن ذلك ظهور مسائل فقهية جديدة، يتحتم مناقشتها وبيان الحكم الشرعي فيها. ومن أهم تلك التطبيقات الصكوك الوقفية، التي يرى فيها كثيرون أداة فاعلة في حشد التمويل اللازم لمشاريع التنمية الاقتصادية والاجتماعية في البلدان الإسلامية. تنبع أهمية هذا البحث في تناوله لبعض المسائل الشرعية المتعلقة بالصكوك الوقفية بنوعيها الدائم والمؤقت، وتتمثل هذه المسائل بمسألة زكاة الصكوك الوقفية، وحكم تداولها، ورهنها. وتخلص الورقة إلى عدم وجوب الزكاة في الصكوك الوقفية الدائمة والمؤقتة لا على الواقف ولا على الموقوف عليهم. وتفرق هذه الورقة بين الدين والقرض الحسن من حيث وجوب الزكاة على الدائن في الأول وعدم وجوبها في الثاني. وأما مسألة التداول، فتناقشها هذه الورقة في ضوء الخلاف الفقهي في مسألة بيع الدين وهي أقرب ما تكون إلى صكوك المرابحة من حيث ما تمثله من ديون، وترجح جواز تداول الصكوك الوقفية ضمن مراعاة الضوابط والمحاذير الشرعية، وهي بمجملها متحققة في صكوك وقف النقود المؤقتة. وأخيراً فيما يتعلق بمسألة استخدام الصكوك الموقوفة رهناً من قبل الواقف أو الناظر، فالراجح عدم جواز رهن الصكوك الوقفية من قبل الناظر حفاظاً على الأصول الموقوفة من الضياع، مع إمكانية رهنها بتحقق المصلحة، وإقرار صريح من المحكمة العليا كما نصت على ذلك بعض التشريعات القانونية في الدول الإسلامية، وأما استخدام الصكوك رهناً من قبل الواقف، فالراجح الجواز قياساً على جواز رهن الدين من طرف ثالث غير المدين. وتوصي هذه الورقة بدراسة الصكوك الوقفية من قبل المجامع الفقهية والمؤسسات الشرعية وإصدار القرارات اللازمة حول المسائل الفقهية المتعلقة بها.
  • Yayın
    Best practices in using zakah to support microenterprises programs
    (Social Sciences University of Ankara (ASBÜ), 2021) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Alfares, Marwa; Azrak, Tawfik; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    Zakah is one of the most effective tools in the Islamic fiscal policy and economic system that has been introduced to achieve a variety of socio-economic objectives. On top of those objectives are poverty alleviation and wealth redistribution. The former objective is clearly indicated in the hadith that is narrated by imam al-Bukhari when the Prophet (PBUH) commanded Mu'adh bin Jabal, his delegate to govern Yemen: “Inform them (the people of Yemen) that Allah has made a charity obligatory upon them, that is collected from their rich and given back to their poor...
  • Yayın
    Exploring the intentional behaviour of refugees in participating in micro-enterprise support programmes (MESP): Is theory of planned behaviour (TPB) still relevant?
    (Emerald Publishing, 2021) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Djafri, Fares; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the relevance of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentional behaviour of refugee entrepreneurs. This paper uses key components of the theory on attitude, subjective norms and perceived control to explore the willingness of refugees to participate in microenterprise support programmes (MESP) in refugee camps. Design/methodology/approach – This study used a positivist research approach, comprising a quantitative basis of enquiry and gathered data via survey questionnaires. In total, 400 usable questionnaires were completed and used for analysis. This study uses descriptive and inferential analysis with SPSS and confirmatory factor analysis with AMOS to test three key TPB hypotheses. Findings – The structured model revealed acceptable high goodness-of-fit indices. Also, the findings indicated that out of three hypotheses, two hypotheses (attitude and perceived control) were substantial, positive and significant. However, the relationship between subjective norms of refugees and their intention to participate in MESP was insignificant. The findings of this study indicate the low-profile refugees give to the views and opinions of the surrounding communities when it comes to determining their intentional behaviour. As such, some poignant implications may relate to microfinance and microcredit programmes targeting refugees. Practical implications – The present study illustrates the interrelationships between the proposed variables. Also, by understanding the relationships between the selected variables, the findings would be useful for the concerned authorities to ameliorate and upgrade the well-being of refugees along with empowering their environment, which would facilitate their engagement in business and entrepreneurship. Originality/value – This study explores the relevance of TPB and its components in the context of the intentional behaviour of refugee entrepreneurs. It further illuminates the distinction of refugee behaviour towards entrepreneurship and MESP.
  • Yayın
    How diverse are Shariah supervisory boards of Islamic banks? A global empirical survey
    (Emerald Publishing, 2022) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Yılmaz, Mustafa Kemal; Yılmaz, Mustafa Kemal; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    Purpose – This study examines diversity in the composition of Shariah Supervisory Boards (SSBs) of Islamic banks (IBs). It investigates diversity from two perspectives: 1) existing composition of SSBs, and 2) the regulatory frameworks and standards of selected Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries. Diversity characteristics in this study include education, nationality, gender, and age. Design/methodology/approach – A list of all full-fledged Islamic commercial banks (FFICBs) globally has been carefully prepared and confirmed. Conventional banks with Islamic windows, non-commercial banks, takaful companies and other Islamic financial institutions are excluded. The available profiles of 428 SSB members have been scrutinised and analysed. These board members occupy 522 SSB positions in 238 FFICBs operating in 52 countries around the globe. From the regulatory perspective, twelve national and international Shariah governance frameworks and standards have been examined. Findings – The findings indicate various levels of diversity in the SSBs of the IBs. The level of diversity in educational background and nationality of the SSBs are generally acceptable. However, lack of diversity in gender and age among the SSB members is evident. While the lack of age diversity in SSBs maybe relatively justified as a common trend in the composition of corporate boards, the SSBs of FFICB are seriously lagging conventional banks in gender diversity. On the regulatory side, these results show that provisions on diversity requirement in the SSBs are almost non-existent in the existing frameworks and standards. Research limitations/ implications – The major limitation of this study is the lack of available information on the SSB members. Practical implications – This paper provides valuable insights for Islamic banks and policy makers concerned with the corporate governance of Islamic financial institutions. First, it offers an excellent bird’s-eye view of the status of diversity in the SSBs of Islamic banks. Second, it motivates policy makers and standard-setting bodies to ensure an adequate level of diversity in the composition of SSBs through relevant regulatory frameworks. This is of paramount importance to the reputation of Islamic finance industry which has been subject to mounting pressure to translate the rhetoric about the Islamic finance industry being ethical, fair, just, equitable and inclusive into genuine implementations. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to examine the diversity of the SSB members from the regulatory as well as implementation perspective.
  • Yayın
    et-Temvil el-cemai'i li'lagradi'l-hayriyye: Tahlil nakdi li'l-minassati'l-islamiyyeti'l-mevcude
    (Moroocan Center for Participation Economic, 2021) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    تهدف هذه الورقة البحثية إلى تسليط الضوء على آخر التطورات الميدانية في التمويل الجماعي للأغراض الخيرية. بما في ذلك أبرز المنصات والإسلامية وآلية عملها وأهم التحديات التي تواجه هذه الصناعة الناشئة. تستخدم هذه الورقة المنهج النوعي من خلال استقراء آخر الدراسات والتقارير المتعلقة بالموضوع وخاصة تلك التي تناقش حالة التمويل الجماعي وخاصة الخيري منها بالإضافة الى إبراز آخر التوجهات في التبرع الخيري. وقد تناولت الدراسة ثلاثة من أنشط منصات التمويل الجماعي الخيري الإسلامية، وهي منصة فينتيرا ومنصة غلوبال صدقة وكذلك منصة لاونتش غود. كذلك ناقشت الدراسة أهم التحديات التي تواجه تطور الصناعة من خلال أخذ حالة منصة وقف وورلد التي توقفت بعد حوالي العام من انطلاقها. إضافة إلى التحديات العامة التي تنطبق على جميع منصات التمويل الجماعي الخيري منها والاستثماري. خلصت الدراسة إلى ضرورة استثمار هذا النوع الصاعد من أساليب التمويل الذي يعد طريقة واعدة بديلة عن طرق التمويل التقليدية. وسردت الورقة لائحة من التوصيات التي يجب اتباعها لدعم وتشجيع منصات التمويل الجماعي وبشكل خاص الخيري منها في العالم الإسلامي بما في ذلك تضافر الجهود للتغلب على التحديات القانونية والتنظيمية وغيرها.
  • Yayın
    Islamic social finance: Mobilizing Zakah (almsgiving) funds to support refugees’ microenterprises pogroms
    (ISEFE, 2019) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    This paper examines the prospects and challenges of using zakah as a source of funding in microenterprise support programs for refugees. According to the literature, lack of funds represents a fundamental obstacle in supporting refugees’ livelihood in particular in microenterprises programs. Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam. All Muslims have to pay 2.5 percent of their wealth every year to the poor and needy. Refugees represent one of the main beneficiaries of zakah. Recently the UNHCR has established zakah funds to mobilise zakah funds to help refugees. This paper argues that instead of giving the refugees cash money, zakah fund or at least part of the zakah funds can be used to provide microcredit grands to support the refugees and help them to help themselves. Despite all the challenges of microfinance programs in particular in the context of refugees, well-designed microfinance programs can provide a more sustainable solutions to refugees in particular those trapped in protracted situations.
  • Yayın
    Not to be left behind: Refugees and the role of waqf in the light of the ongoing COVID19 pandemic
    (İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim Üniversitesi, 2021) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    COVID-19 pandemic has led to devastating effects on human life worldwide and has caused unprecedented disruptions in all economic and social aspects of life. Tens of millions of people particularly in fragile economies are at risk of slipping into extreme poverty. Refugees and other marginalised populations are feared to be left beyond the reach of aid packages and assistance plans. This paper is proposing the establishment of a waqf based fund to help refugees. Rational of this model is founded on several arguments. These arguments are related to the global refuge crisis which can be described as follows: a. it is a Muslim humanitarian crisis in the first place, b. it is not a temporary one, c. it is impacting mainly developing countries with a considerable number of Muslim-majority countries being the host of the majority of global refugees, d. majority of refugee stay in urban areas, d. Waqf constitutes a big potential to close the gap in humanitarian aid and to offer for the basic needs of refugees, e. a proper differentiation must be clear between emergency aid and long-term durable solutions for refugees. f. Similar differentiation must be observed between core poor refugees and economically active refugees in terms of durable solutions and economic engagement. Against the above backdrop, this paper is proposing a model of waqf fund for refugees that is similar to the Zakah refugee Fund created by the UNHCR. The objective of the model is to contribute in the relief and aid efforts and to make use of the create potential of the philanthropic sector. The proposed model shall use in-kind waqf and cash waqf as key sources of funds. Temporary and permanent waqf will be accepted. Collected funds will be invested and the revenues will be distributed on the beneficiaries in the specific aid sector as specified by the donor or the waqf founder. The current model can be a subject of further research to explore various aspects of the model such as the legal requirements and the operational challenges in the real environment.
  • Yayın
    Exploring the shariah board diversity characteristics in full-fledged islamic banks globally
    (İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim Üniversitesi, 2020) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    This study aims to examine the diversity characteristics of Shariah boards in fully-fledgedcommercial Islamic banks (FFIBs). The data is collected manually covering differentdiversity components in Shariah boards, i.e. age, gender, nationality, education andexperience from 248 FFIBs globally in 50 countries for the year 2019. Sudan, Iraq and Iranhave the highest number of FFIBs, with 31, 30 and 29 banks respectively. Interestingly, thereis only one FFIBs among 14 Shariah banks operating in Indonesia. There are in total 563Shariah board positions in the FFIBs analysed, occupied by 428 Shariah scholars, 135 of themhaving multi-directorship positions. The results reveal that only six female Shariah scholarstake positions in four FFIBs in Bangladesh (1), Brunei (1), Malaysia (3), and Tunisia (1). Asfor the age, the findings show that about 45 per cent of the Shariah board members are 60 orabove, and only 4 per cent lower than 40. Most of the Shariah scholars have the nationality ofBangladesh (55), Malaysia (33) and Saudi Arabia (23). In terms of education, the majority ofthe scholars are graduated from Shariah programs. Nevertheless, about 15 per cent of theShariah scholars have a non-Shariah background such as law (26), economics (9), economicsand comparative religion (22), and business administration (3). The findings may encouragethe management of the FFIBs to more seriously consider the diversity in their Shariah boardscomposition to come up with innovative and sustainable solutions in a dynamically changingenvironment. Further, the policy makers may inforce some measures to improve diversity anddecision making in the FFIBs to respond new dimensions raising in the global economic andsocial environment.
  • Yayın
    The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the profitability and operational efficiency of Turkish banks: A comparative analysis
    (Higher Colleges of Technology, 2022) Kachkar, Omar Ahmad; Azrak, Tawfik; Bwando, William; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11 March, 2020. This is the highest level of health emergency in the global health regulations. The pandemic affected all the global aspects of life including social, political and economic interactions amongst humanity. Like any other sector involved in day-to-day economic activities, the financial sector had its own reaction to the external economic shock induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The first objective of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the profitability and operational efficiency of conventional and participation banks in Turkey. The second objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the pandemic on the combined profitability and operational efficiency of the two categories together. Panel data with random effects was the main analysis methodology adopted by the study. The Turkish conventional banks examined by the study are Vakif Bank, Iş Bankasi, Ziraat Bankasi and Yapi Kredi and the participation banks are Kuwait Turk Bankasi, Albaraka, Turkiye Finans and Ziraat Katilim. The data used for the analysis ranges from 2016 to 2020. The results indicate that the pandemic had no effect on the profitability of the Turkish conventional banks but had a positive impact on the participation banks’ profitability. The results also suggest the pandemic had a negative impact on the operational efficiency of both conventional and participation banks. Moreover, for the combined analysis, the results could not establish any impact of the pandemic on the profitability of the two groups of banks in aggregate. However, the results of the study show negative impact of the pandemic on the combined efficiency of both sets of banks.
  • Yayın
    Waqf sukuk as instruments of sustainable development and challenges of issuing them a field study in Malaysia
    (Universiti Sultan Azlan Shah, 2022) Alfares, Marwa; Kachkar, Omar; Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü
    برزت التنمية المستدامة مؤخراً كأحد أهم القضايا في مجال التنمية الاجتماعية والاقتصادية. ولقد لعبت مؤسسة الوقف عبر التاريخ الإسلامي دورا أساسيا في دعم التنمية المستدامة للمجتمعات الإسلامية. تحاول هذه الورقة تقديم مراجعة حديثة لصكوك الوقف بشكل عام مع التركيز بشكل خاص على الصكوك الوقفية في ماليزيا. وقد تم استخدام الطريقة النوعية لجمع البيانات في هذه الورقة. حيث أجريت ست مقابلات مباشرة مع خبراء الأوقاف والصكوك في ماليزيا. وجدت هذه الورقة أنه رغم أهميتها الكبيرة، لم يتم أي إصدار لصكوك الوقف في ماليزيا حتى الآن. وأشار الخبراء الذين تمت مقابلتهم إلى عدد من التحديات التنظيمية والتشغيلية التي تواجه إصدار صكوك الوقف بشكل عام مع التركيز على السياق الماليزي. وأكد الخبراء، على وجه الخصوص، على نقص الوعي بأهمية صكوك الوقف بين المسلمين بشكل عام وكذلك بين الأفراد العاملين في المؤسسات الخيرية الإسلامية. بالإضافة إلى ذلك أشاروا إلى التحديات المتعلقة بحوكمة الوقف وإلى النقص الكبير في الموارد البشرية المحترفة والمتخصصة في تشغيل الوقف وإدارته على صعيد المجالس الدينية باعتبارها السلطة الوحيدة في ماليزيا المسؤولة عن إدارة شؤون الوقف والصكوك الوقفية ضمنا.ً وأخيرا شكك بعض الخبراء في المقابلات في قابلية السوق على المساهمة والاكتتاب في الصكوك الوقفية بسبب المخاطر الكامنة وضعف الثقة بالقائمين على مثل هذه المشاريع الوقفية