Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü

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  • Yayın
    Cultural placebos from the wild in patients with mental disorders: The case of the Nour Association in Fez-Morocco
    (University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2024) Khabbache, Hicham; Ouazizi, Khalid; Ali, Driss Ait; Cherqui, Abdelhalim; Rizzo, Amelia; Tarchi, Livio; Bulut, Sefa; Szarpak, Łukasz; Makkaoui, Mohamed; Ghouat, Hanane El; Afshari, Parisa Jalilzadeh; Yousefi, Rezvaneh Namazi; Chirico, Francesco; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Objectives: In urgent situations, like those experienced by the Nour Association, individuals often turn to their ethnocultural backgrounds and ingrained coping mechanisms to enhance their psychological and overall well-being. Methods: This study employed a dual-analytical approach. Initially, participant observation was used to understand the day-to-day activities within the Nour Center’s authentic environment. Subsequently, three cognitive theories—conceptual metaphor, schema, and frame theory were applied to analyze and interpret the transformation in the patients’ conceptual systems comprehensively. Results: We detected that the patient community at the Nour Center utilized various socio-cultural practices (drama roleplay, peer-support therapy, and task-shifting) to create an improvised, theory-independent recovery program focused on ‘awakening’ and ‘selfempowerment’. These latter were mediated by higher-order meta-cognitive processes, such as ‘self-regulation’ and ‘self-description’, frames, such as ‘the home frame’ and ‘the hospital frame’, and schemata, such as ‘the function schema’, which are foundational to ‘cultural placebos’. Discussion: The present findings established that both general health and mental health are significantly shaped by societal influences, indicating that cultural therapy emerges from the intricate dynamics of sub-cultural social systems. Ultimately, concepts of illness and recovery are subject to cultural negotiation.
  • Yayın
    The effects of the World War I on the development of the modern concept of trauma
    (Medwin Publishers, 2020) Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    The modern concept of trauma and posttraumatic stress diagnosis has evolved to a large degree from documentations of soldiers’ pre-and-post war experiences, and observations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the first Word War on the development of the concept posttraumatic stress disorder at the turn of the century. Even though soldiers’ war histories and stories were popular in previous wars, the moving point for understanding and classification of traumatic stress gained more importance and systematic investigation after WW-I. Due to the large number of drafted soldiers, and veterans and the death count, WW-I had a great impact on a large number of soldiers, their families, and the society as a whole. During the First World War attention was focused for the first time on the illness known as “shell shock” or “traumatic neurosis.” Due to military needs and compensation reasons, treatment options were searched for in many parts of the world. Traumatic experience was named “shell shock” and was thought to be a neurological disorder caused by explosive bombing.
  • Yayın
    The effect of learned helplessness on the psychological health of healthcare workers
    (SIPISS- Edizioni FS Publishers, 2024) Qourrichi, Abdelmajid; Ouazizi, Khalid; Saaliti, Elmostapha; Ait Ali, Driss; El Alami, Laila; Hilal, Meryem; Nucera, Gabriella; Rizzo, Amelia; Yildirim, Murat; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Batra, Kavita; Szarpak, Lukasz; Bulut, Sefa; Chirico, Francesco; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    The study of the relationship between learned helplessness and psychological health in the workplace provides a good understanding of how psychological health functions and identifies the factors of well-being and psychological distress among caregiving staff. Methods: To examine the impact of learned helplessness on the determinants of psychological health among healthcare workers, we surveyed a sample of 141 Moroccan healthcare workers (62.41% female; Mage=41.4). Results: The results indicated that psychological well-being at work is negatively correlated with feelings of learned helplessness. In contrast, psychological distress reports a significant positive correlation with feelings of helplessness among healthcare workers (-.28 and .35, respectively). Discussion: The study of the link between feelings of learned helplessness and psychological health at work provides a good understanding of the problem of psychological health at work among caregiving staff and identifies its determinants. This study's results underline that the feelings of helplessness that healthcare workers learn during their professional practice influence their psychological health and help to (partially) explain their psychological well-being and distress. The statistical analysis results reveal that learned helplessness reports a significant correlation coefficient with psychological well-being at work and its factors (serenity, social commitment, and social harmony).
  • Yayın
    Comparison of the effects of PBL in 3D virtual environment and F2F on learning and spatial skills
    (Springer, 2024) Küçük Avcı, Şirin; Akgün, Özcan Erkan; Balkan Kıyıcı, Fatime; Akgün, Özcan Erkan; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    This study aimed to juxtapose the impacts of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology implemented within a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment against PBL in a conventional face-to-face setting, along with a control group, on students' learning performance, conceptual comprehension, and spatial aptitude. The investigation concentrated on the structure of matter within a seventh-grade science curriculum, encompassing a cohort of 79 students enrolled in the course. The study was conducted under a mixed methods experimental design and comprised three distinct groups: two experimental groups (E1; E2) and one control group (C). The instructional intervention in the E1 group involved utilizing a 3D virtual environment grounded in the problem-based learning method, whereas the E2 group underwent face-to-face instruction employing worksheets derived from problem-based learning. In contrast, the control group received traditional direct instruction from the science teacher through lectures, demonstrations, and question-and-answer sessions, all focusing on the same topic. Pretests and posttests were administered to the participants before and after the experimental interventions, assessing conceptual understanding, spatial visualization, and mental rotation. Additionally, learning tasks completed by the E1 and E2 groups were evaluated using rubrics to assess learning performance. Subsequent to the post-test, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with randomly selected students from the E1 group. The results indicated that instruction within the problem-based 3D virtual environment significantly enhanced students' learning performance, conceptual understanding, spatial visualization, and mental rotation skills compared to the other instructional conditions.
  • Yayın
    Gender disproportionality in special education: An analysis of odd ratios and trends
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2024) Akgül, Savaş; Yakut, Ayşe Dilşad; Yakut, Ayşe Dilşad; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    In Turkey, the special education population has steadily increased since 2006. By generating a 16-year period of data obtained from the National Education Statistics (NES) published annually by the Presidency of Strategy Development of the Ministry of National Education, we synthesize the gender odds ratios and trends by special education categories and/or educational settings. We used odds ratios and the Mann-Kendall test for data analysis. Gender disproportionality exists in favour of males with special needs in the majority of educational settings. In addition, we found uptrends, downtrends, and no trends for gender odds ratios. Gender disproportionality is discussed, along with implications for research and practice.
  • Yayın
    Pozitif psikolojide altruizm
    (Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, 2024) Usman, Ali Cissey; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü; Erden, Ekrem
    Bu küçük şeyler bir yaşlıya selam vermek için ziyaret etmek, trafikte birine yol vermek, basit hediyeler vermek, iş yerindeki bir meslektaşına yardım etmek veya meşgul olmanıza rağmen haklarını savunmaktan aciz olan kişilere yardım etmek gibi herhangi bir küçük şefkat ve nezaket eylemi olabilir. Bu eylemler, başkalarının çıkarlarını kendi çıkarlarının önüne koyan özveri ve şefkatin davranışsal karşılıklarıdır. Başka bir deyişle, bir kimse başkalarının çıkarları için kendininkileri azaltmak zorundadır. Prososyal davranış, altruizm ve nezaket çoğu kez göz ardı edilen değerlerdir. Çünkü altruistik ve nazik insanlar, “başarı yalnızca diğerlerini ezerek ya da onları görmezden gelerek elde edilir” inancıyla “keriz” ve “tutucu” olarak görülür. Fakat diğerleri görmezden gelinerek, çiğnenerek başarı elde edildiği zaman, başarıya ulaşan kişi nadiren gerçek mutluluk ya da bir sevgi ve tamamlanma hissi yaşar…
  • Yayın
    Uygulamada pozitif psikoloji
    (Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, 2024) Kartol, Aslı; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Psikoloji bilimi, genç bir disiplin olmasına rağmen bu bilimin gelişimi çok hızlı olmuştur. Geçen yüzyılda daha çok insan doğasının olumsuzluklarına, içgüdülere, erken dönem çocukluk yaşantılarına ve daha çok travmatik ve yıkıcı yaşam deneyimlerine odaklanırken son yıllarda insanın ve insancıl duyguların önemi ve değeri artmıştır...
  • Yayın
    Examination of group based domestic violence perpetrator intervention processes
    (Taylor & Francis, 2024) Turhan, Zeynep; Parlak Ünlü, Ece; Ulus, İhsan Çağatay; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    This study examined the responses of domestic violence perpetrators to group treatment by conducting observations with 12 men from two 10-week two-group interventions who had received a no-contact order. Thematic analysis was applied to the observation notes. The participants often indicated improved awareness and behavior change through expressing feelings of shame, learning alternative behaviors, and acquiring new techniques. Conversely, the normalization of vio-lence, social expectations, gendered stereotypes, and masculinity crises were identified as barriers. The findings indicate that learning and implementing new strategies for healthy and respectful intimate relationships can help men take responsibility for their abusive acts.
  • Yayın
    Optimism, altruism and religious coping post COVID-19 pandemic
    (Faculty of Psychology of State Islamic University (UIN) Raden Fatah Palembang, 2023) Herawati, Netty; Rohmah, Nailur; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Post Covid-19 conditions still leave trauma for some people, especially those who have experienced pain and even loss of family members. The ability to deal with trauma is the ability to adapt to conditions. The aim of this study was to find out how optimism and altruism influence post-pandemic religious coping. The subjects of this study amounted to 820 men and women, aged 23-58 years old. The brief RCOPE, LOT-R and the altruism scale are instruments to find out the level of religious coping, optimism and altruism respectively. Based on the parametric-statistical analysis with product moment correlation from Pearson, there was a correlation between optimism and religious coping and there was also a correlation between altruism and religious coping. Based on multiple regression analysis, this study showed that both variables can simultaneously be predictors of religious coping.
  • Yayın
    Lise öğrencilerinde duyarlı sevginin akran zorbalığına etkisi
    (Muhammed Yıldız, 2023) Gene, Yıldırım; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Bu çalışmanın amacı lise öğrencilerinin duyarlı sevgi düzeyleri ile akran zorbalığı davranışları arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Araştırmanın örneklemini 2020-2021 eğitim öğretim yılında İstanbul ili Kağıthane ilçesinde bulunan Anadolu Lisesi ve Mesleki ve Teknik Anadolu Lisesi 9, 10 ve 11 sınıflarına devam eden toplam 560 lise öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Verilerin toplanmasında ‘Kişisel Bilgi Formu’, ‘Duyarlı Sevgi Ölçeği’ ve ‘Akran Zorbalığı Belirleme Ölçeği Ergen Formu’ kullanılmıştır. Bu araştırmada betimsel araştırma türlerinden ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Duyarlı Sevgi Ölçeği Puanları ile Akran Zorbalığı, Zorba-Kurban Alt Ölçek Puanları ve Toplam Puanları Arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek için Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyon Katsayısı ve bağımsız değişkenlerin bağımlı değişken üzerindeki etkisini test etmek için de Regresyon Analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda lise öğrencilerinin duyarlı sevgi düzeyleri ile akran zorbalığı kurbanı olmaları arasında negatif yönlü istatistiksel olarak anlamlı zayıf bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Duyarlı sevgi ölçeği puanlarının akran zorbalığı kurban ölçeği puanları ile elde edilen Regresyon Analizi anlamlı bulunmuştur. Duyarlı Sevgi Ölçeği puanları akran zorbalığı kurban alt ölçek puanları üzerindeki varyansın %4’ünü açıklamaktadır.
  • Yayın
    7 Ekim’in görünmeyen diğer korkunç boyutu: Kuşaklararası travma
    (Woo Medya, 2023) Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    7 Ekim’de Hamas’ın İsrail’e yönelik saldırısıyla başlayan ve ardından İsrail’in Gazze’ye yönelik saldırılarıyla devam eden sürecin sayısız mağduru var; hayatını ya da yakınlarını kaybedenler, yaralananlar, öksüz, yetim kalan binlerce çocuk, evleri yıkılanlar, göç etmek zorunda kalanlar... Öyle ki artık bu konuda yapılan haberlerde, Birleşmiş Milletler’in basın açıklamalarında yeni bir kısaltma kullanılıyor: WCNSF – wounded child, no surviving family yani hiçbir aile ferdi hayatta olmayan, yaralı çocuk... Tüm bu acı olaylar, bu yaşananların etkisinin bugünlerle sınırlı kalmayacağını, eğer kalıcı bir çözümle yaralar, travmalar iyileştirilmezse, yaşanan travmaların kuşaklar boyunca süreceğini hatırlatıyor.
  • Yayın
    Promoting a healthy school environment via social-emotional learning in the high school setting: An overview
    (International Network for the Advancement of Medicine, Psychology, and Public Health (INAMPPH), 2024) Tusha, Almeda; Bulut, Sefa; al-Hendawi, Maha; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Adolescence is a period of incredible growth, discovery, and possibility. Nevertheless, it is also a stage when behavioral and physiological issues can arise or intensify, with long-term adverse effects up to adulthood. The target audience consists of high school students, educators, school administrators, and families since adolescents at this stage find it challenging to discover and maintain their identity. Consequently, if adolescents do not adequately develop their social-emotional skills up to high school or are challenged by their environment, the chance of becoming disobedient, troublesome, low-performers, and so on arises. Fostering social-emotional learning promotes a safe and positive educational atmosphere in which all adolescents are encouraged to speak out, embrace difficulties, take risks, and strive for success. Nowadays, social-emotional learning remains one of the most practical frameworks used in schools, boosting self-awareness, academic success, and positive behaviors both in and out of the classroom.
  • Yayın
    After the disaster
    (Lannoo, 2023) Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Turkey woke up on February 6, 2023, to a catastrophic earthquake in Kahramanmaraş that caused massive damages and casualties in eleven cities, and Syria. Before fully understanding what had happened, a more severe earthquake occurred in the same region. The Minister ofInternal Affairs made an international call for assistance at the fourth level. Both domestically and abroad, both civilian citizens and trained field workers did their best to send aid to the earthquake-stricken areas and participate in search and rescue operations. In Turkey, more than 35,355 buildings collapsed, and 50,738 people died during the earthquakes. At present, 4.1 million people have been displaced as a consequence ofthe earthquakes, with 1.5 million ofthem currently homeless…
  • Yayın
    South Asian perspectives on the nuclear weapons ban: Challenges and prospects for disarmament
    (Taylor and Francis, 2024) Mir, Mohd Amin; Nazir, Thseen; Nazir, Thseen; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    This research paper explores the nuanced perspectives of South Asian nations, primarily India and Pakistan, on the global efforts toward nuclear disarmament. Against a complex regional security landscape, historical conflicts, and evolving nuclear doctrines, this study employs a qualitative research design, drawing on document analysis and existing literature. The findings reveal divergent views between India and Pakistan, often shaped by intricate factors of security considerations, regional dynamics, and domestic political influences. The paper discusses the implications of South Asian stances on global disarmament efforts. It proposes potential pathways for fostering dialogue and cooperation in pursuing nuclear disarmament in the region. Through an in-depth examination of South Asian perspectives, this research contributes valuable insights to the broader discourse on nuclear disarmament.
  • Yayın
    Teaching ethics in teacher education: ICT-enhanced, case-based and active learning approach with continuous formative assessment
    (Springer, 2024) Göçen, Ahmet; Bulut, Mehmet Akın; Bulut, Mehmet Akın; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    The teaching of ethics in teacher education programs is crucial for fostering the moral and ethical development of prospective teachers and shaping them into ethical role models for future students. This study, employing qualitative case study research, gathered data from undergraduates in teacher education programs to explore the best approaches for ethics education. It found that combining digital and case-based pedagogical methods, fostering an open-minded attitude among lecturers, and implementing a blend of Socratic and active learning techniques leads to the most favorable outcomes. Additionally, con¬tinuous formative assessment throughout the academic year is essential. To cultivate a teaching workforce with strong ethical and moral values, undergraduate courses in ethics and morality should be thought-provoking, integrating real-life cases with a mix of digital and tangible resources. The ethics course lecturer should not only serve as a role model and exhibit a caring disposition but also use effective teaching methodologies. The pa¬per details key themes and categories for successful ethics instruction and offers specific recommendations.
  • Yayın
    Bullying, maltreatment and uncivil faculty member behaviors at universities
    (Universidad Simon Bolivar, 2023) Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Crescenzo, Pietro; Bukhori, Baidi; Elwakeel, Sayed Ahmed; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Objective: Bullying and uncivil behaviors frequently happen in higher education lecture halls. This study aimed at exploring college students bullying incidents and mistreatments by faculty members, witnesses, and the type of bullying, where bullying and exploitations mostly happen. Method: A total 2646 (1493 female & 1185 male) students from a mid-size state university studying at every accessible department voluntarily participated to fill out a survey. A survey instrument and a social demographic information form is used to collect data. A chi-square test and several descriptive statistics were run to analyze the data. Results: Results revealed that 10 % of student were threatened being graded lower or being failed, 21 % stated that they did not believe in fair investigation even when they could complain to the relevant authorities in the university. Among them, 31 % of the students witnessed a faculty member threatening students’ in an uncivil manner. Male faculty members were 4 times more likely to bully student or act uncivil behaviors than female faculty members. Assistant professor or younger faculty members tend to behave more negatively than higher ranking or older professors. Conclusions: Most of the incidents happen during the class. Results show that bullying is a universal phenomenon and it appears in every level and field of education. Even though there are cultural and departmental differences, and department-specific misbehaviors, it is still common in every level of education in every culture.
  • Yayın
    Students’ emotions in socio-constructivist approaches: Comparing experiences at different Italian school levels
    (SpringerLink, 2023) Crescenzo, Pietro; Ritella, Giuseppe; Sansone, Nadia; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Annese, Susanna; Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    Emotions are becoming increasingly central in education research. The research shows a deep gap concerning emotions triggered by socio-constructivist approaches where learning occurs through social interaction, peer-work, group work, and learning activities based on building ideas or concrete objects. The specifc emotions emerging in such contexts are still under-researched. To address this gap, this study frst reviews how emotions are currently conceptualized and studied. We then present excerpts from several of our studies to analyze the specifc emotional processes that emerge in relation to socio-constructivist educational activities. The main objective is to understand what emotions are elicited in students when participating in educational socio-constructivist activities. Several school levels are involved—middle school, high school, and university—to fnd common emotion. Five “socio-constructivist emotions” were singled out: emotion fuidity, discovering new parts of the self, pleasure of learning, value of the group, and crossing space–time boundaries. The paper discusses each of them with a qualitative analysis of excerpts extracted from the data available. The paper ends by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of this analysis.
  • Yayın
    A scoping review of studies on assistive technology interventions and their impact on individuals with autism spectrum disorder in Arab countries
    (MDPI, 2023) al-Hendawi, Maha; Hussein, Esraa; Al Ghafri, Badriya; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Arab countries necessitates evidence-based interventions. Assistive technology (AT) presents a promising approach. However, data on the pervasiveness of AT use and its effectiveness for individuals with ASD, specifically within Arab countries, remain scarce. Objective: To review the current literature on the AT interventions and outcomes reported for individuals with ASD in Arab countries. Methods: A scoping review adhering to PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to explore the utilization of AT, segmented into three categories: low-technology (low-tech), mid-technology (mid-tech), and high-technology (high-tech) devices. Results: Twelve studies had a pooled sample of 1547 participants, primarily male school-aged children with ASD. The AT applications evaluated ranged from low-tech visual schedules and support to high-tech virtual reality systems. Studies have reported the potential benefits of AT in improving communication, social, academic, adaptive, and functional abilities; however, comparative evidence between AT interventions is limited. The identified barriers to the adoption of AT included caregiver uncertainty about the use of AT and a lack of awareness of AT among professionals and the Arab community in general. Conclusion: Available studies suggest that the adoption of AT can enhance the skills of individuals with ASD in Arab countries. However, more rigorous studies across diverse demographic groups and Arab national regions are needed to strengthen the evidence base and provide appropriate recommendations.
  • Yayın
    Self-efficacy and academic performance of vocational high school students
    (Faculty of Psychology UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, 2023) Ubaidillah, Fauzul Adim; Saifullah, Saifullah; Hitomi, Ahmad Rusli; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    The aim of this research is to examine the role of self-efficacy on academic performance of Vocational High School students. This research uses a quantitative approach with a correlational research design. The participants of this research are at 115 students of the Vocational High School, Department of Electrical and Industrial Engineering who were obtained based on convenience sampling technique. The data analysis is used by regression analysis with Jeffrey’s Amazing Statistics Program (JASP). The result of this research indicated that selfefficacy has a significant role on academic performance.
  • Yayın
    Strengths and weaknesses of inviting men to a voluntary-based domestic violence intervention
    (SAGE Publications, 2023) Turhan, Zeynep; Fırat, Engin; Genç, Emel; Başer Baykal, Nur; Ulus, İhsan Çağatay; Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Sefa; Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Rehberlik ve Psikolojik Danışmanlık Bölümü
    This study examines the factors motivating domestic violence perpetrators to participate in a voluntary-based intervention program. The experiences and determining factors around men’s positive and negative responses to this invitation were examined through semi-structured interviews with professionals, observations, and reflexive notes during the first meeting with 29 men. Two major themes emerged from the thematic analysis: the factors making men more likely to attend the first meeting or resisting the group intervention. These findings can help professionals recognize the challenges of inviting perpetrators to interventions, especially in countries with insufficient laws for mandated domestic violence perpetrator programs. The paper discusses the importance during the first meeting of building rapport and trust and recognizing complex family histories to encourage voluntary attendance and intervention engagement.