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The threefold nature of spirituality (TNS) model: The relationship between rational, emotional and spiritual intelligences - cross-cultural approach
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CitationSkrzypińska, K., Lazar, A., Ladd, K., Demmrich, S., Kaplan, H., Chen, Z. J. (2019). The threefold nature of spirituality (TNS) model: The relationship between rational, emotional and spiritual intelligences - cross-cultural approach. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality: New Trends and Neglected Themes, IAPR Conference, 31 August - 3 September 2019, Gdansk, POLAND.
This study focused on three kinds of intelligence that seem to be important in adaptive processes - rational (RI), emotional (EI), and spiritual (SI) – and their relations with personality, spirituality, religiousness as well as life purpose and satisfaction. A multinational sample (N = 690) consisting of research participants from Israel (N = 181), Turkey (N = 110), Poland (N = 275) and Germany (N = 120) responded to an internet questionnaire. (A United States sample is to be included as well). As predicted, EI and SI were significantly correlated (rs = .29 to .60). However, RI was not correlated with either EI or SI. Also, as predicted, SI was significantly correlated with Openness to Experience, cognitive and experiential aspects of spirituality as well as with spiritual and religious interests. For the Turkish and German samples, SI was also correlated with Extraversion, but the effect sizes were small (rs = .19 - .20). Finally, hierarchical regression indicated that for all samples – excepting the Polish sample – SI had a unique contribution to the prediction of purpose in life over and above that of RI and EI. However, EI had a much larger contribution in comparison to SI. In contrast, for the prediction of life satisfaction, SI had a unique contribution only among the Israeli sample, where the contribution was much smaller in comparison with EI. In all of the regression analysis, RI did not have a significant contribution to the prediction of either life satisfaction or purpose in life.